To explain the origins of female subordination we need a theory that accounts for the control of women's work by men. Published in , Women's Work, Men's Property: The Origins of Gender and Class , edited by Stephanie Coontz and Peta Henderson, comprises five essays by a group of French and American feminist historians and anthropologists, in search of the sociohistorical basis of gender inequality. To some, the very idea of a book on the origins of sexual inequality is absurd. Male dominance seems to them a universal, if not inevitable, relationship that has been with us since the dawn of our species. A growing body of evidence and theory, however, suggests that this is not the case, and a number of scholars have begun to address the issue of male dominance as a historical phenomenon, grounded in a specific set of circumstances rather than flowing from some universal aspect of human nature or culture.
Bemefits of female domination male gorilla is on the right. Margaret Thatcher was famous for rarely promoting other women. Patriarchy makes us equal in one way, though: men are as arrested in their development as women. We do not, however, feel Bemefits of female domination she has been totally successful in her claim to explain the origins of inequality, even while she has done much to elucidate its dynamics. This is, of course, an overstatement. On the other hand, Sexy dees the taking of life is important, as in hunting or warlike societies, men tend to exercise power and male Bemegits are elevated in Lost bets to wife and social life. India restricts university collaborations with China.
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She raised her office desk so her 5ft-tall cm frame would be slightly elevated above male visitors, and she always ensured that business lunch or dinner bills had been paid in advance from her account.
Recent trends suggest that we are moving up from lower paying jobs, where the bigger chunk of the female workforce lay, and taking up positions in previous "men-only" occupations in management, finance, law, leadership , etc.
Besides demonstrating that what a man can do a woman can do too, we've gone a step further to dominate a few industries. While the number of women in executive positions remains relatively low, our leadership competency gives us an edge to take over these industries and lead the way. From using websites to self-diagnose to counting the total number of steps we take each day, the health sector is a long way past where it was a couple of decades ago.
A sample of countries revealed that women make up 67 percent of the workforce in health and social sectors. In the U. And guess who makes up 90 percent of the registered nurses? For some, serving in such positions as community health worker, where the training is minimal and pay meager at best, it's a calling.
Others just want to get out of the home and participate in paid work. This not only equips them with skills but also earns them respect from their family. Whatever their reason, it's enough to show that without women, the health sector would crumble. Educational technology, or edtech, facilitates the performance and productivity of the learner while promoting ethical studying practices. It's an extremely diverse field whose effectiveness relies heavily on catering for individual needs.
Anything from elearning to traditional learning and the supporting systems in-between are all part of edtech. However, by some estimates, 30 percent of the founders in edtech are women. But, this isn't new. Education has long been a female-dominated profession. Even back in the 19th century, women commonly held leadership positions in education faculties and across the school system. There's an overwhelming number of women in the field of human resources. According to a report by the U.
A separate report published by Payscale. One theory is that the field has kept a reputation of being a domain for women. But, this is one of the female-dominated fields that men are currently showing a lot of interest in.
Another explanation is that of biology and genetics. These skills turn out to be very important in resolving conflicts, managing people and negotiating contracts. All informed advice on how to provide great customer service seems to center around a few qualities: empathy, listening skills, patience, problem solving and telephone skills.
It's not just popular opinion that women are better at stepping into other people's shoes than men. Scientific research has revealed that there's a lot of truth in that common belief. But, no conclusive evidence has been shown to explain whether it's nature or nurture. This behavior is thought to reflect increased activity of " mirror neurons. So, do some industries favor a certain gender? And for women entrepreneurs, these four industries are ours for the taking.
Entrepreneur Media, Inc. By giving your consent below, you are agreeing to the use of that data. Revoke Consent Submit Consent. Women in Business. For women entrepreneurs, these four industries are ours for the taking. Next Article -- shares Add to Queue. Image credit: PeopleImages Getty Images. Simonetta Lein. Guest Writer. September 21, 5 min read. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Get heaping discounts to books you love delivered straight to your inbox.
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Bemefits of female domination.
4 Industries Women Continue to Dominate
She raised her office desk so her 5ft-tall cm frame would be slightly elevated above male visitors, and she always ensured that business lunch or dinner bills had been paid in advance from her account. What if the physical dynamics of gender were suddenly reversed — if women inexplicably became larger and stronger than men, without the aid of hundreds of thousands of years of evolution?
It is, of course, an unlikely event — but asking experts to speculate about this thought experiment can highlight how gender dynamics are transforming in other ways in the real world, as well as revealing the things many people take for granted about the relationship between the sexes. The majority of terrestrial vertebrates, including humans, are the exception to this rule. Females grow to a certain extent and then switch to reproductive mode, investing in fat production rather than making muscle and bone.
Males, meanwhile, put energy into traits that will best allow them to compete for those females — size and strength, in the case of humans. While physical differences between the genders have been narrowing — women are catching up to men in some athletic endeavours, especially ultra-events — there are still basic differences, evolved over millennia. Such changes would also necessarily be accompanied by an uptick in testosterone and other hormones.
If society adhered solely to the laws of nature, then this would probably mean a shift from women to men as primary child caregivers. Greater strength may also bring psychological ramifications, of the sort that men already experience, regardless of whether they use their muscles on a day-to-day basis.
Strong wealthy men, for instance, tended to oppose redistributing money to those who are worse off. Petersen suggests that these men may still be shaped by ancestral behaviours, in which physically stronger individuals demanded a greater proportion of resources for themselves. Stronger, larger men may also favour hierarchies and are prone to competitiveness, argues Petersen. We can at least partly thank natural selection for these traits. While there is an ongoing debate about the extent to which nature versus nurture influences things like dominance and aggressiveness, it's not impossible that suddenly-stronger women would experience at least some enhancement of these traditionally male traits.
Additionally, self-entitlement , proneness to anger and bargaining confidence in women tend to be linked to physical attractiveness, so strength may simply replace looks as the impetus behind those personality traits. All of these changes might take a toll on some heterosexual relationships. In some cases, this scenario is already playing out. Her something daughter, for example, has been on disaster dates in which the man is clearly looking for an ego boost.
Strength is one of the few ways that men, on average, exceed the abilities of women — but if that changed, it would in fact be a continuation of the way that male identity and 'traditional' masculinity is already being challenged in the real world. Technology is also muting gender differences, making historically male-dominated fields such as manufacturing and the military open to women, who can now rely on intellect and hand-eye coordination rather than upper body strength, for example, to build cars or engage in combat.
Katz argues that this might help to explain some of the popularity and growth of American football, boxing, MMA and other violent sports. He notes, though, that obsession with gladiator-type masculinity tends to be a predominantly American phenomenon. So, while male-on-female domestic abuse would likely decrease, female-on-male cases would probably increase.
How inequalities and gender-based discrimination in the workplace might be affected is less clear. Should women no longer have to use fashion, body language and voice training to masculinise themselves — should they naturally tower over male colleagues — then gender-based discrimination, Fairbairn believes, would begin to disappear.
She points out that physical size and strength are not necessarily factors in sustaining inequalities. Credit: Getty Images. The arguments for why men should still dominate women in the workforce will simply shift, she continues, just as they have done for years, from claims that God ordained women to serve men, to insistence that women are too emotional to serve in positions of power.
Some newly-strong women, in fact, may prefer to keep it that way as well. The impacts of these opposing movements — some pro-equality, others against — is visible in modern-day politics.
The female code-breakers who were left out of the history books It is, of course, an unlikely event — but asking experts to speculate about this thought experiment can highlight how gender dynamics are transforming in other ways in the real world, as well as revealing the things many people take for granted about the relationship between the sexes.
Stronger, larger men may also favour hierarchies and are prone to competitiveness. Those in power will always struggle hard to stay in power, through whatever means they can.
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