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While large amounts of research have gone into technology, it is rarely used except Trans portation put satellites into orbit, and conduct scientific experiments. Many infrastructure owners, therefore, impose usage fees, such as landing fees at Trajs, or toll plazas on roads. Author: ericadams ericadams The infrastructure and vehicles may be owned and operated by the portatiom company, or they may Trans portation operated by different entities. Tranx Article Talk. Author: staff writer staff writer. The railways' target is to operate high speed trains in two categories -- at kmph on the Delhi-Mumbai and Delhi-Kolkata routes, and up to kmph under the ongoing bullet train project between Mumbai-Ahmedabad. Higher fuel prices incite a greater fuel economy across modes and reducing speed. Overnight journeys may not meet the needs of freight customers.
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Find Your State Transportation Department. Port Authority of N. Nov Blote teens I believe in the issues we stand for and I love working for the state DOTs. State Agency Directory Online Services. WV Roads Maintenance Updates. Find Your Way. The design provisions of these specifications employ the Load and Resistance Factor Design Trans portation methodology, which is based on structural reliability theory, and calibrated to achieve a target level of reliability. These specifications cover the design, evaluation, and rehabilitation of Trans portation bridges. You can now visit Detroit Metro Airport terminals beyond security without a flight ticket.
Transportation , the movement of goods and persons from place to place and the various means by which such movement is accomplished.
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Never miss a great news story! Get instant notifications from Economic Times Allow Not now. The railways' target is to operate high speed trains in two categories -- at kmph on the Delhi-Mumbai and Delhi-Kolkata routes, and up to kmph under the ongoing bullet train project between Mumbai-Ahmedabad. Odisha's Gopalpur port receives its first capesize vessel. Logistics sector to grow at per cent over the medium-term; outlook stable: ICRA. Index to measure logistics costs of key export sectors on the cards.
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Piramal Ent. Market Watch. Railways to implement Rs crore project to run trains at kmph Oct 22, , PM IST The railways' target is to operate high speed trains in two categories -- at kmph on the Delhi-Mumbai and Delhi-Kolkata routes, and up to kmph under the ongoing bullet train project between Mumbai-Ahmedabad. Follow us on. Download et app. Become a member.
New Publications. Nov It represents all transportation modes, including air, highways, public transportation, active transportation, rail, and water. Find Your Way. What are you interested in? Visitors, Vendors, and Departments.
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What is transportation? definition and meaning - cloudbookumpc.com
They are mobile transport assets and fall into three basic types; land road, rail and pipelines , water shipping , and air. For instance, an automobile has a capacity to carry some freight while a passenger plane has a bellyhold that is used for luggage and cargo. Technical characteristics relate to attributes such as speed, capacity and motive technology while operational characteristics involve the context in which modes operated, including speed limits, safety conditions or operating hours.
The demand for transport and the ownership of modes are dominant commercial characteristics. Road infrastructures are large consumers of space with the lowest level of physical constraints among transportation modes. However, physiographical constraints are significant in road construction with substantial additional costs to overcome features such as rivers or rugged terrain. Road transportation has an average operational flexibility as vehicles can serve several purposes but are rarely able to operate outside roads.
Road transport systems have high maintenance costs, both for the vehicles and infrastructures. They are mainly linked to light industries and freight distribution where rapid movements of freight in small batches are the norm. Yet, with containerization, road transportation has become a crucial link in freight distribution.
Railways are composed of a traced path on which wheeled vehicles are bound. In light of recent technological developments, rail transportation also include monorails and maglev. They have an average level of physical constrains and a low gradient is required, particularly for freight.
Heavy industries are traditionally linked with rail transport systems, although containerization has improved the flexibility of rail transportation by linking it with road and maritime modes. Rail is by far the land transportation mode offering the highest capacity with a 23, tons fully loaded coal unit train being the heaviest load ever carried.
Pipeline routes are practically unlimited as they can be laid on land or under water. Their purpose is to move liquids such as petroleum products over long distances in a cost effective fashion. The longest gas pipeline links Alberta to Sarnia Canada , which is 2, km in length. The longest oil pipeline is the Transiberian, extending over 9, km from the Russian arctic oilfields in eastern Siberia to Western Europe.
Physical constraints are low and include the landscape and pergelisol in arctic environments. Pipeline construction costs vary according to the diameter and increase proportionally with the distance and with the viscosity of fluids from low viscosity gas to high viscosity oil.
Pipeline terminals are very important since they correspond to refineries and harbors. Main maritime routes are composed of oceans, coasts, seas, lakes, rivers and channels. However, due to the location of economic activities maritime circulation takes place on specific parts of the maritime space, particularly over the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. The construction of channels, locks and dredging are attempts to facilitate maritime circulation by reducing its discontinuity, but such endeavors are highly expensive.
These high costs also relate to maritime shipping where the construction, operation and maintenance of ships is capital intensive. Yet, with containerization, maritime shipping has become the linchpin of globalization, allowing trading a wide range of goods and commodities. Air routes are practically unlimited, but they are denser over the North Atlantic, inside North America and Europe and over the North Pacific. Air transport constraints are multidimensional and include the site a commercial plane needs about 3, meters of runway for landing and take off , the climate, fog and aerial currents.
Air activities are linked to the tertiary and quaternary sectors, notably finance and tourism, which lean on the long distance mobility of people.
Containerization has been a powerful vector of intermodal integration, enabling maritime and land transportation systems to interconnect. Cover a grey area in terms of if they can be considered as a transport mode since telecommunications often do not have an apparent physicality. Yet, this physicality is real since they are structured as high capacity networks with very low constraints, which may include the physiography and oceanic masses crossed by fiber optic cables.
Wave transmissions, because of their limited coverage, often require substations, such as for cellular phone and data networks. Satellites are often using a geostationary orbit which is getting crowded. High network costs and low distribution costs characterize many telecommunication networks, which are linked to the tertiary and quaternary sectors stock markets, business to business information networks, etc. Telecommunications can provide a substitution for personal mobility in some economic sectors, but the major impact are related to e-commerce, which has opened a whole range of commercial opportunities.
However, contemporary demand is influenced by integrated transportation systems that require flexibility in the respective use of each mode. As a result, modal competition exists at various degrees and takes several dimensions. Modes can compete or complement one another in terms of cost, speed, accessibility, frequency, safety, comfort, etc. There are three main conditions that ensure that some modes are complementing one another:.
Thus, there is modal competition when there is an overlap in geography, transport markets and level of service. A critical factor is the terminal cost structure for each mode, where the costs and delays of loading and unloading a unit impose fixed costs that are incurred independent of the distance traveled.
With increasing income levels, the propensity for people to travel rises. At the same time, international trade in manufactured goods and parts has increased. These trends in travel demand act differently upon modes. For passenger services, rail is challenged by the competition of road transport over short distances and aircraft for longer trips. For freight , rail and shipping have been impacted by competition from road and air modes. While shipping, pipelines and rail still perform well for bulk shipments, competition over the last decades have seen road and air modes capture an important market share of the high revenue-generating goods.
Road transportation continues to dominate passenger and freight transportation markets. Although intermodal transportation has opened many opportunities for a complementarity between modes, transport operators are now competing over many modes in the transport chain. A growing paradigm thus involves supply chain competition with the modal competition component occurring over three dimensions :.
It is generally advocated that a form of modal equality or modal neutrality should be part of public policy where each mode would compete based upon its inherent characteristics.
Modal competition is influenced by public policy, particularly over funding of infrastructure and regulation issues. Roads are usually provided by the public sector, while many other transport infrastructures are financed by the operators using them.
This is the case for rail, air and maritime transportation. Under such circumstances, public policy shapes modal preferences. The technological evolution in the transport industry aims at adapting transport infrastructures to growing needs and requirements. A modal shift involves the growth in the demand of a transport mode at the expense of another, although a modal shift can involve an absolute growth in both concerned modes.
Modal shift can further be nuanced by time shift , for which the use of the same mode takes place at another time period, likely when there is less congestion.
In a situation of congestion, it is thus likely that time shift will be preferred to modal shift, particularly if the time shift is relatively marginal e. An individual may delay travel at a later time while a freight delivery can be rescheduled. There are important geographical variations in modal competition. The availability of transport infrastructures and networks varies enormously, with corridors being subject to the highest level of modal competition.
Corridors have many different modes that in combination provide a range of transport services that ensure an efficient commercial environment. In many parts of the world, however, there are only limited services, and some important modes such as rail may be absent altogether.
This limits the choices for passengers and shippers, and acts to limit accessibility. Areas with limited modal choices tend to be among the least developed. Advanced economies, on the other hand possesses a wide range of modes that can provide services to meet the needs of the society and the economy. All modes are affected by fuel price volatility , from the individual car owner to the corporation operating a fleet of hundreds of aircraft or ships.
Different pricing mechanisms are used, namely direct rate adjustments, as is the case of shipping, or indirect adjustments as is the case of airlines, with the reliance on fuel surcharges when energy prices are increasing. In the context of higher energy prices and environmental concerns, and therefore higher input costs for transportation, the following can be expected:.
There is a complementarity between passenger and freight transport systems. In others, different types of vehicle have been developed for freight and passenger traffic, but they both share the same road infrastructure, as for example in rail and road traffic. In shipping, passengers and freight used to share the same vessels and often the same terminals. Since the s specialization has occurred, and the two are now quite distinct, except for ferries and some RORO services.
Sharing freight and passengers modes is not without difficulties , and indeed some of the major problems confronting transportation occur where the two compete for the use of scarce transport infrastructure. For example, trucks in urban areas are seen as a nuisance and a cause of congestion by passenger transport users.
Daytime deliveries and double-parked trucks are perceived as a particular nuisance. The poor performance of some modes, such as rail, is seen as the outcome of freight and passengers having to share routes.
There are also growing interests expressed at using segments of transit systems to move freight, particularly in central areas. This raises the question as to what extent and under which circumstances freight and passengers are compatible. The ongoing separation of passengers and freight on specific gateways and corridors is consequently a likely outcome, involving a growing divergence of flows, modes and terminals.
Passengers and freight are increasingly divergent activities as they reflect different transportation markets. In several modes and across many regions passenger and freight transport is being unbundled. It has already been mentioned that in the maritime sector passenger services have become separated from freight operations. The exception being ferry services where the use of RORO ships on high frequency services adapt to the needs of both passenger and freight market segments. Deep sea passenger travel is now dominated by cruise shipping which has no freight-handling capabilities, and bulk and general cargo ships rarely have an interest or the ability to transport passengers.
Where both segments are maintained the railways give priority to passengers, since rail persists as the dominant mode for inter-city transport in India, China and much of the developing world. In Europe national rail systems have prioritized passenger service as a mean to expand regional mobility. Freight transport has tended to lose out because of the emphasis on passengers since such systems were optimized for passenger flows. Overnight journeys may not meet the needs of freight customers.
The private railway companies could not compete against the automobile and airline industry for passenger traffic, and consequently withdrew from the passenger business in the s. They were left to operate a freight only system, which has generally been successful, especially with the introduction of intermodality.
Both are struggling to survive. A major problem is that they have to lease trackage from the freight railways, and thus slower freight trains have priority. Freight and passenger vehicles still share the roads. The growth of freight traffic is increasing road congestion and in many cities concerns are being raised about the presence of trucks.
Already, restrictions are in place on truck dimensions and weights in certain parts of cities, and there are growing pressures to limiting truck access to non-daylight hours.