Adult basic life support-Basic Life Support (BLS) For Adults

Back to top. The community response to cardiac arrest is critical to saving lives. Each year, UK ambulance services respond to approximately 60, cases of suspected cardiac arrest. Resuscitation is attempted by ambulance services in less than half of these cases approximately 28, Even when resuscitation is attempted, less than one in ten victims survive to go home from hospital.

Adult basic life support

Adult basic life support

Adult basic life support

Adult basic life support

Effective performance of rescue breathing or bag-mask or bag-tube ventilation is an essential skill and requires training and practice. Public use of automated external defibrillators. Traveling 60 mph without interruptions translates to an actual travel distance of 60 miles in an hour. Cinefluorographic study of hyperextension of the Adupt and upper airway patency. Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. CPR providers, therefore, should not continue manual chest compressions during shock delivery. Watch the chest rise. Subgroup analysis suggested potential benefit from CPR Training mom Adult basic life support in patients with prolonged EMS response intervals 4 to 5 minutes or longer and in EMS agencies with high baseline survival to hospital discharge, but these findings conflict with other lfie Adult basic life support.

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The maximum interruption in chest compression to give Adult basic life support breaths should not exceed 10 seconds. The Chain of Survival. Mouth-to-tracheostomy ventilation supportt be used for a victim with a tracheostomy tube or tracheal stoma who requires rescue breathing. Resuscitation e1-e Reliability of pulse palpation by healthcare personnel to diagnose paediatric Adult basic life support arrest. However the current reaching the rescuer from the ICD is minimal and harm to the rescuer is unlikely. Namespaces Adult basic life support Talk. Breathing Agonal breaths are irregular, slow and deep breaths, frequently accompanied by a characteristic snoring sound. An automated external defibrillator AED machine is essential during resuscitation. Additional bystanders may be used to call the ambulance service. Chest compression depth in children should Free web pages about masterbation at least 4 cm in infants lige 5 cm in children. Summary of changes in basic life support and automated external defibrillation since the Guidelines Guidelines highlights the critical importance of the interactions between the emergency medical dispatcher, the bystander who provides cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR and the timely deployment of an automated external defibrillator AED.

At the request of the AHA Training Network, we have clarified the descriptions of lay rescuers as follows:.

  • BLS for adults focuses on doing several tasks simultaneously.
  • The guidelines contain detailed information about basic and advanced life support for adults, paediatrics and the newborn.
  • Basic life support BLS is a level of medical care which is used for victims of life-threatening illnesses or injuries until they can be given full medical care at a hospital.

At the request of the AHA Training Network, we have clarified the descriptions of lay rescuers as follows:. No new studies were reviewed for this topic.

Instead, it may be reasonable for the provider to deliver 1 breath every 6 seconds 10 breaths per minute while continuous chest compressions are being performed. Why: The BLS CoSTR summary and systematic review considered the use of continuous vs interrupted chest compressions after placement of an advanced airway in the hospital setting. Key issues and major changes in the Guidelines Update recommendations for adult CPR by lay rescuers include the following:.

These changes are designed to simplify lay rescuer training and to emphasize the need for early chest compressions for victims of sudden cardiac arrest.

Cardiac arrest victims sometimes present with seizure-like activity or agonal gasps that can confuse potential rescuers. Dispatchers should be specifically trained to identify these presentations of cardiac arrest to enable prompt recognition and immediate dispatcher-guided CPR. If the victim is unresponsive with absent or abnormal breathing, the rescuer and the dispatcher should assume that the victim is in cardiac arrest.

Dispatchers should be educated to identify unresponsiveness with abnormal and agonal gasps across a range of clinical presentations and descriptions. Why: This change from the Guidelines emphasizes the role that emergency dispatchers can play in helping the lay rescuer recognize absent or abnormal breathing. Dispatchers should be specifically educated to help bystanders recognize that agonal gasps are a sign of cardiac arrest. Dispatchers should also be aware that brief generalized seizures may be the first manifestation of cardiac arrest.

In summary, in addition to activating professional emergency responders, the dispatcher should ask straightforward questions about whether the patient is unresponsive and if breathing is normal or abnormal in order to identify patients with possible cardiac arrest and enable dispatcher-guided CPR. All lay rescuers should, at a minimum, provide chest compressions for victims of cardiac arrest.

In addition, if the trained lay rescuer is able to perform rescue breaths, he or she should add rescue breaths in a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths. All trained lay rescuers should, at a minimum, provide chest compressions for victims of cardiac arrest. In addition, if the trained lay rescuer is able to perform rescue breaths, compressions and breaths should be provided in a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths.

However, for the trained lay rescuer who is able, the recommendation remains for the rescuer to perform both compressions and breaths. Why: The number of chest compressions delivered per minute during CPR is an important determinant of return of spontaneous circulation ROSC and survival with good neurologic function.

The actual number of chest compressions delivered per minute is determined by the rate of chest compressions and the number and duration of interruptions in compressions eg, to open the airway, deliver rescue breaths, allow AED analysis. Provision of adequate chest compressions requires an emphasis not only on an adequate compression rate but also on minimizing interruptions to this critical component of CPR.

An inadequate compression rate or frequent interruptions or both will reduce the total number of compressions delivered per minute. Box 1 uses the analogy of automobile travel to explain the effect of compression rate and interruptions on total number of compressions delivered during resuscitation.

Compression depth may be difficult to judge without use of feedback devices, and identification of upper limits of compression depth may be challenging. It is important for rescuers to know that the recommendation about the upper limit of compression depth is based on 1 very small study that reported an association between excessive compression depth and injuries that were not life-threatening. Opioid overdose response education with or without naloxone distribution to persons at risk for opioid overdose in any setting may be considered.

This topic is also addressed in the Special Circumstances of Resuscitation section. Why: There is substantial epidemiologic data demonstrating the large burden of disease from lethal opioid overdoses, as well as some documented success in targeted national strategies for bystander-administered naloxone for people at risk.

This recommendation incorporates the newly approved treatment. Key issues and major changes in the Guidelines Update recommendations for HCPs include the following:. These changes are designed to simplify training for HCPs and to continue to emphasize the need to provide early and high-quality CPR for victims of cardiac arrest. Why: The intent of the recommendation change is to minimize delay and to encourage fast, efficient simultaneous assessment and response, rather than a slow, methodical, step-by-step approach.

However, the priority for the provider, especially if acting alone, should still be to activate the emergency response system and to provide chest compressions. There may be circumstances that warrant a change of sequence, such as the availability of an AED that the provider can quickly retrieve and use.

For adults with unmonitored cardiac arrest or for whom an AED is not immediately available, it is reasonable that CPR be initiated while the defibrillator equipment is being retrieved and applied and that defibrillation, if indicated, be attempted as soon as the device is ready for use. These recommendations are designed to support early CPR and early defibrillation, particularly when an AED or defibrillator is available within moments of the onset of sudden cardiac arrest.

With in-hospital sudden cardiac arrest, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute CPR before defibrillation. However, in monitored patients, the time from ventricular fibrillation VF to shock delivery should be under 3 minutes, and CPR should be performed while the defibrillator is readied.

Why: A compression depth of approximately 5 cm is associated with greater likelihood of favorable outcomes compared with shallower compressions. While there is less evidence about whether there is an upper threshold beyond which compressions may be too deep, a recent very small study suggests potential injuries none life-threatening from excessive chest compression depth greater than 2. Why: Full chest wall recoil occurs when the sternum returns to its natural or neutral position during the decompression phase of CPR.

Chest wall recoil creates a relative negative intrathoracic pressure that promotes venous return and cardiopulmonary blood flow. Leaning on the chest wall between compressions precludes full chest wall recoil. Incomplete recoil raises intrathoracic pressure and reduces venous return, coronary perfusion pressure, and myocardial blood flow and can influence resuscitation outcomes.

Why: Interruptions in chest compressions can be intended as part of required care ie, rhythm analysis and ventilation or unintended ie, rescuer distraction. Chest compression fraction is a measurement of the proportion of total resuscitation time that compressions are performed.

An increase in chest compression fraction can be achieved by minimizing pauses in chest compressions. The optimal goal for chest compression fraction has not been defined. The addition of a target compression fraction is intended to limit interruptions in compressions and to maximize coronary perfusion and blood flow during CPR. Training for the complex combination of skills required to perform adequate chest compressions should focus on demonstrating mastery.

Why: Technology allows for real-time monitoring, recording, and feedback about CPR quality, including both physiologic patient parameters and rescuer performance metrics. These important data can be used in real time during resuscitation, for debriefing after resuscitation, and for system-wide quality improvement programs. Maintaining focus during CPR on the characteristics of compression rate and depth and chest recoil while minimizing interruptions is a complex challenge even for highly trained professionals.

There is some evidence that the use of CPR feedback may be effective in modifying chest compression rates that are too fast, and there is separate evidence that CPR feedback decreases the leaning force during chest compressions. However, studies to date have not demonstrated a significant improvement in favorable neurologic outcome or survival to hospital discharge with the use of CPR feedback devices during actual cardiac arrest events.

In all of these EMS systems, the providers received additional training with emphasis on provision of high-quality chest compressions. Three studies in systems that use priority-based, multitiered response in both urban and rural communities, and provide a bundled package of care that includes up to 3 cycles of passive oxygen insufflation, airway adjunct insertion, and continuous chest compressions with interposed shocks, showed improved survival with favorable neurologic status for victims with witnessed arrest or shockable rhythm.

Why: This simple single rate for adults, children, and infants—rather than a range of breaths per minute—should be easier to learn, remember, and perform.

Why: The steps in the BLS algorithms have traditionally been presented as a sequence in order to help a single rescuer prioritize actions. However, there are several factors in any resuscitation eg, type of arrest, location, whether trained providers are nearby, whether the rescuer must leave a victim to activate the emergency response system that may require modifications in the BLS sequence.

These Web-based Integrated Guidelines incorporate all relevant recommendations from , and The ILCOR systematic reviews use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology and its associated nomenclature for strength of recommendation and level of evidence. Recommendations for each topic addressed in the adult BLS focused update are classified as follows:.

At the request of the AHA Training Network, we have also clarified the descriptions of lay rescuers as follows:. These links are indicated by a combination of letters and numbers eg, BLS We encourage readers to use the links and review the evidence and appendix.

The AHA process for identification and management of potential conflicts of interest was used, and potential conflicts for writing group members are listed at the end of each Part of the Guidelines Update. Because the publication represents the first Guidelines Update, it includes an appendix with all the recommendations for adult BLS as well as the recommendations from the Guidelines.

Any of the algorithms that have been revised as a result of recommendations in the Guidelines Update are contained in this publication. To emphasize that the algorithm has been modified, the words Update will appear in the title of the algorithm. Sudden cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of death in the United States.

Outcome from OHCA remains poor: only BLS is the foundation for saving lives after cardiac arrest. Fundamental aspects of adult BLS include immediate recognition of sudden cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response system, early CPR, and rapid defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator AED. Initial recognition and response to heart attack and stroke are also considered part of BLS. This section presents the updated recommendations for adult BLS guidelines for lay rescuers and healthcare providers.

Key changes and continued points of emphasis in this Guidelines Update include the following:. The steps of BLS consist of a series of sequential assessments and actions, which are illustrated in a simplified BLS algorithm that is unchanged from Integrated teams of highly trained rescuers may use a choreographed approach that accomplishes multiple steps and assessments simultaneously rather than in the sequential manner used by individual rescuers eg, one rescuer activates the emergency response system while another begins chest compressions, a third either provides ventilation or retrieves the bag-mask device for rescue breaths, and a fourth retrieves and sets up a defibrillator.

BLS assessments and actions for specific types of rescuers are summarized in Table 3. Emergency medical dispatch is an integral component of the EMS response. Healthcare providers should call for nearby help upon finding the victim unresponsive, but it would be practical for a healthcare provider to continue to assess for breathing and pulse simultaneously before fully activating the emergency response system.

This erroneous information can result in failure by dispatchers to identify potential cardiac arrest and failure to instruct bystanders to initiate CPR immediately.

Patients who are unresponsive and not breathing normally have a high likelihood of being in cardiac arrest.

If the patient is unresponsive with abnormal or absent breathing, it is reasonable for the emergency dispatcher to assume that the patient is in cardiac arrest. Dispatchers should be educated to identify unresponsiveness with abnormal breathing and agonal gasps across a range of clinical presentations and descriptions.

In order to increase bystander willingness to perform CPR, dispatchers should provide telephone CPR instructions to callers reporting an adult who is unresponsive and not breathing or not breathing normally ie, only gasping.

The EMS system quality improvement process, including review of the quality of dispatcher CPR instructions provided to specific callers, is considered an important component of a high-quality lifesaving program. Studies have shown that both lay rescuers and healthcare providers have difficulty detecting a pulse.

The lay rescuer should not check for a pulse and should assume that cardiac arrest is present if an adult suddenly collapses or an unresponsive victim is not breathing normally. Interruptions of chest compressions to palpate for a spontaneous pulse or to otherwise check for return of spontaneous circulation ROSC can compromise vital organ perfusion.

Accordingly lay rescuers should not interrupt chest compressions to palpate pulses or check for ROSC. Ideally, the pulse check is performed simultaneously with the check for no breathing or only gasping, to minimize delay in detection of cardiac arrest and initiation of CPR.

Lay rescuers will not check for a pulse. Begin chest compressions as quickly as possible after recognition of cardiac arrest. The Guidelines included a major change for trained rescuers, who were instructed to begin the CPR sequence with chest compressions rather than breaths C-A-B versus A-B-C to minimize the time to initiation of chest compressions. Additional evidence published since showed that beginning the CPR sequence with compressions minimized time to first chest compression.

Similar to the Guidelines, it may be reasonable for rescuers to initiate CPR with chest compressions.

However the current reaching the rescuer from the ICD is minimal and harm to the rescuer is unlikely. The medical algorithm for providing basic life support to adults in the USA was published in in the journal Circulation by the American Heart Association. Airway Open the airway using the head tilt and chin lift technique whilst assessing whether the person is breathing normally. Initial assessment For clarity, the algorithm is presented as a linear sequence of steps. Circulation ; If back blows are ineffective give up to 5 abdominal thrusts Stand behind the victim and put both arms round the upper part of the abdomen Lean the victim forwards Clench your fist and place it between the umbilicus navel and the ribcage Grasp this hand with your other hand and pull sharply inwards and upwards Repeat up to five times If the obstruction is still not relieved, continue alternating five back blows with five abdominal thrusts.

Adult basic life support

Adult basic life support

Adult basic life support

Adult basic life support

Adult basic life support. Navigation menu

The guidelines contain detailed information about basic and advanced life support for adults, paediatrics and the newborn.

Also included are guidelines for the use of Automated External Defibrillators and other related topics. Accreditation is valid for 5 years from March Resuscitation Guidelines Introduction. Adult choking algorithm A4 poster , A3 poster. Video summary. Paediatric choking algorithm A4 poster , A3 poster. NLS algorithm A4 poster. Traumatic cardiac arrest algorithm A4 poster. In-hospital cardiac arrest algorithm A4 poster.

Post-resuscitation care algorithm A4 poster. Prognostication strategy algorithm A4 poster. Tachycardia algorithm A4 poster Bradycardia algorithm A4 poster. Contributors and conflict of interest.

Accreditation is valid for five years from March The NICE Accreditation Scheme recognises organisations that demonstrate high standards in producing health or social care guidance. Users of NICE accredited guidance can therefore have high confidence in the quality of the information provided. NICE manages the NHS Evidence service, which provides access to authoritative clinical and non-clinical evidence and best practice through a web-based portal.

Search our Site Keywords. Guidelines and guidance Introduction Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation Adult advanced life support Paediatric basic life support Paediatric advanced life support Resuscitation and support of transition of babies at birth Prehospital resuscitation In-hospital resuscitation Post-resuscitation care Prevention of cardiac arrest and decisions about CPR Peri-arrest arrhythmias Education and implementation of resuscitation Contributors and conflict of interest G video summaries ABCDE approach.

Adult advanced life support Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation Education and implementation of resuscitation In-hospital resuscitation Paediatric advanced life support Paediatric basic life support Peri-arrest arrhythmias Post-resuscitation care Prehospital resuscitation Prevention of cardiac arrest and decisions about CPR Resuscitation and support of transition of babies at birth. Adult Life Support. Paediatric Life Support.

Newborn Life support. Free publications. If respirations are present, the victim should be attached to a cardiac monitor. The pulse check is the third step in the algorithm. If there is a definite pulse, then rescue breathing should be done for one second every six seconds with a recheck every 2 minutes.

If the victim does not have a pulse, or there is a question as to whether it is present, then compressions should be initiated at the rate of , with 2 breaths every 30 compressions. If it is shockable, then 1 shock should be given with immediate CPR instituted for 2 minutes, beginning rapidly within seconds of the shock.

If the rhythm is not shockable, then the HCP should administer CPR for 2 minutes and recheck the rhythm every 2 minutes. Deliver breath over one second. Watch the chest rise. Hold the mask in place with the EC clamp technique and lift the jaw to open the airway. Squeeze the bag for one second while watching for the rise and fall of the chest.

Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation

Back to top. The community response to cardiac arrest is critical to saving lives. Each year, UK ambulance services respond to approximately 60, cases of suspected cardiac arrest.

Resuscitation is attempted by ambulance services in less than half of these cases approximately 28, Even when resuscitation is attempted, less than one in ten victims survive to go home from hospital. The remainder of this section contains guidance on the initial resuscitation of an adult cardiac arrest victim where the cardiac arrest occurs outside a hospital.

This includes basic life support BLS: airway, breathing and circulation support without the use of equipment other than a protective barrier device and the use of an automated external defibrillator AED. Simple techniques used in the management of choking i. The sequence of steps for the initial assessment and treatment of the unresponsive victim are summarised in Figure 2.

Further technical information on each of the steps is presented in Table 1 and below. The sequence of steps takes the reader through recognition of cardiac arrest, calling an ambulance, starting CPR and using an AED.

The number of steps has been reduced to focus on the key actions. The intent of the revised algorithm is to present the steps in a logical and concise manner that is easy for all types of rescuers to learn, remember and perform CPR and use an AED.

For clarity, the algorithm is presented as a linear sequence of steps. It is recognised that the early steps of ensuring the scene is safe, checking for a response, opening the airway, checking for breathing and calling the ambulance may be accomplished simultaneously or in rapid succession. Open the airway using the head tilt and chin lift technique whilst assessing whether the person is breathing normally.

Do not delay assessment by checking for obstructions in the airway. Agonal breaths are irregular, slow and deep breaths, frequently accompanied by a characteristic snoring sound. They originate from the brain stem, which remains functioning for some minutes even when deprived of oxygen.

The presence of agonal breathing can be interpreted incorrectly as evidence of a circulation and that CPR is not needed.

Bystanders should suspect cardiac arrest and start CPR if the victim is unresponsive and not breathing normally. Immediately following cardiac arrest, blood flow to the brain is reduced to virtually zero.

This may cause a seizure-like episode that can be confused with epilepsy. Bystanders should be suspicious of cardiac arrest in any patient presenting with seizures. Checking the carotid pulse or any other pulse is an inaccurate method for confirming the presence or absence of circulation.

If possible, stay with the victim while calling the ambulance. If the phone has a speaker facility, switch it to speaker mode as this will facilitate continuous dialogue with the dispatcher including if required CPR instructions. Additional bystanders may be used to call the ambulance service. In adults needing CPR, there is a high probability of a primary cardiac cause for their cardiac arrest.

When blood flow stops after cardiac arrest, the blood in the lungs and arterial system remains oxygenated for some minutes. To emphasise the priority of chest compressions, start CPR with chest compressions rather than initial ventilations.

Experimental studies show better haemodynamic responses when chest compressions are performed on the lower half of the sternum. Accompany this instruction by a demonstration of placing the hands on the lower half of the sternum. Two studies, with a total of 13, patients, found higher survival among patients who received chest compressions at a rate of — min Delivery of rescue breaths, defibrillation shocks, ventilations and rhythm analysis lead to pauses in chest compressions.

Leaning on the chest preventing full chest wall recoil is common during CPR. The proportion of a chest compression spent in compression compared to relaxation is referred to as the duty cycle. CPR feedback and prompt devices e. Their use during clinical practice should be integrated with comprehensive CPR quality improvement initiatives rather than as an isolated intervention.

Chest compression depth can decrease as soon as two minutes after starting chest compressions. If there are sufficient trained CPR providers, they should change over approximately every two minutes to prevent a decrease in compression quality. Changing CPR providers should not interrupt chest compressions. Avoid rapid or forceful breaths. The maximum interruption in chest compression to give two breaths should not exceed 10 seconds. Mouth-to-nose ventilation is an acceptable alternative to mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

Mouth-to-tracheostomy ventilation may be used for a victim with a tracheostomy tube or tracheal stoma who requires rescue breathing. Barrier devices decrease transmission of bacteria during rescue breathing in controlled laboratory settings.

Their effectiveness in clinical practice is unknown. If a barrier device is used, care should be taken to avoid unnecessary interruptions in CPR.

Manikin studies indicate that the quality of CPR is improved when a pocket mask is used, compared to a bag-mask or simple face shield during basic life support. AEDs are safe and effective when used by laypeople, including if they have had minimal or no training. CPR providers should concentrate on following the voice prompts, particularly when instructed to resume CPR, and minimising interruptions in chest compression.

It is extremely rare for bystander CPR to cause serious harm in victims who are eventually found not to be in cardiac arrest.

Those who are in cardiac arrest and exposed to longer durations of CPR are likely to sustain rib and sternal fractures. Damage to internal organs can occur but is rare. CPR providers should not, therefore, be reluctant to start CPR because of the concern of causing harm. Choking is an uncommon but potentially treatable cause of accidental death. As victims are initially conscious and responsive, early interventions can be life-saving.

Recognition of airway obstruction is the key to successful outcome, so do not confuse this emergency with fainting, myocardial infarction, seizure or other conditions that may cause sudden respiratory distress, cyanosis or loss of consciousness. Choking usually occurs while the victim is eating or drinking. Foreign bodies may cause either mild or severe airway obstruction. The victim that is unable to speak, has a weakening cough, is struggling or unable to breathe, has severe airway obstruction.

Coughing generates high and sustained airway pressures and may expel the foreign body. These treatments are reserved for victims who have signs of severe airway obstruction. Victims with mild airway obstruction should remain under continuous observation until they improve, as severe airway obstruction may subsequently develop.

The clinical data on choking are largely retrospective and anecdotal. Approximately half of cases of airway obstruction are not relieved by a single technique. The likelihood of success is increased when combinations of back blows or slaps, and abdominal and chest thrusts are used.

Higher airway pressures can be generated using chest thrusts compared with abdominal thrusts. Bystander initiation of chest compressions for unresponsive or unconscious victims of choking is associated with improved outcomes. Therefore, start chest compressions promptly if the victim becomes unresponsive or unconscious. After 30 compressions, attempt 2 rescue breaths, and continue CPR until the victim recovers and starts to breathe normally.

Search our Site Keywords. Guidelines and guidance Introduction Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation Adult advanced life support Paediatric basic life support Paediatric advanced life support Resuscitation and support of transition of babies at birth Prehospital resuscitation In-hospital resuscitation Post-resuscitation care Prevention of cardiac arrest and decisions about CPR Peri-arrest arrhythmias Education and implementation of resuscitation Contributors and conflict of interest G video summaries ABCDE approach.

Adult advanced life support Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation Education and implementation of resuscitation In-hospital resuscitation Paediatric advanced life support Paediatric basic life support Peri-arrest arrhythmias Post-resuscitation care Prehospital resuscitation Prevention of cardiac arrest and decisions about CPR Resuscitation and support of transition of babies at birth. Adult Life Support.

Paediatric Life Support. Newborn Life support. Free publications. Newsletter - Issue Course publications. Apply for membership FAQs Members' shop. Add to My Basket. Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation. The guidelines process includes: Systematic reviews with grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Summary of changes in basic life support and automated external defibrillation since the Guidelines Guidelines highlights the critical importance of the interactions between the emergency medical dispatcher, the bystander who provides cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR and the timely deployment of an automated external defibrillator AED.

An effective, co-ordinated community response that draws these elements together is key to improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The emergency medical dispatcher plays an important role in the early diagnosis of cardiac arrest, the provision of dispatcher-assisted CPR also known as telephone CPR , and the location and dispatch of an AED. The sooner the emergency services are called, the earlier appropriate treatment can be initiated and supported. The knowledge, skills and confidence of bystanders will vary according to the circumstances, of the arrest, level of training and prior experience.

The bystander who is trained and able should assess the collapsed victim rapidly to determine if the victim is unresponsive and not breathing normally and then immediately alert the emergency services. Whenever possible, alert the emergency services without leaving the victim.

The victim who is unresponsive and not breathing normally is in cardiac arrest and requires CPR. Immediately following cardiac arrest blood flow to the brain is reduced to virtually zero, which may cause seizure-like episodes that may be confused with epilepsy. Bystanders and emergency medical dispatchers should be suspicious of cardiac arrest in any patient presenting with seizures and carefully assess whether the victim is breathing normally. Introduction The community response to cardiac arrest is critical to saving lives.

Once cardiac arrest has occurred, early recognition is critical to enable rapid activation of the ambulance service and prompt initiation of bystander CPR. Figure 1. The Chain of Survival.

Adult basic life support

Adult basic life support