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This document describes the details of the Model API.

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The relational model RM for database management is an approach to managing data using a structure and language consistent with first-order predicate logic , first described in by English computer scientist Edgar F.

Codd , [1] [2] where all data is represented in terms of tuples , grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database. The purpose of the relational model is to provide a declarative method for specifying data and queries: users directly state what information the database contains and what information they want from it, and let the database management system software take care of describing data structures for storing the data and retrieval procedures for answering queries.

A table in an SQL database schema corresponds to a predicate variable; the contents of a table to a relation; key constraints, other constraints, and SQL queries correspond to predicates. However, SQL databases deviate from the relational model in many details , and Codd fiercely argued against deviations that compromise the original principles. The relational model's central idea is to describe a database as a collection of predicates over a finite set of predicate variables, describing constraints on the possible values and combinations of values.

The content of the database at any given time is a finite logical model of the database, i. A request for information from the database a database query is also a predicate. Other models are the hierarchical model and network model. Some systems using these older architectures are still in use today in data centers with high data volume needs, or where existing systems are so complex and abstract that it would be cost-prohibitive to migrate to systems employing the relational model.

Also of note are newer object-oriented databases. There have been several attempts to produce a true implementation of the relational database model as originally defined by Codd and explained by Date , Darwen and others, but none have been popular successes so far. The relational model was the first database model to be described in formal mathematical terms. Hierarchical and network databases existed before relational databases, but their specifications were relatively informal.

The relational model was invented by Edgar F. Codd as a general model of data, and subsequently promoted by Chris Date and Hugh Darwen among others. In The Third Manifesto first published in Date and Darwen attempt to show how the relational model can allegedly accommodate certain "desired" object-oriented features.

SQL's NULL construct was intended to be part of a three-valued logic system, but fell short of that due to logical errors in the standard and in its implementations. The fundamental assumption of the relational model is that all data is represented as mathematical n - ary relations , an n -ary relation being a subset of the Cartesian product of n domains. In the mathematical model, reasoning about such data is done in two-valued predicate logic , meaning there are two possible evaluations for each proposition : either true or false and in particular no third value such as unknown , or not applicable , either of which are often associated with the concept of NULL.

Data are operated upon by means of a relational calculus or relational algebra , these being equivalent in expressive power.

The relational model of data permits the database designer to create a consistent, logical representation of information. Consistency is achieved by including declared constraints in the database design, which is usually referred to as the logical schema.

The theory includes a process of database normalization whereby a design with certain desirable properties can be selected from a set of logically equivalent alternatives. The access plans and other implementation and operation details are handled by the DBMS engine, and are not reflected in the logical model. The basic relational building block is the domain or data type , usually abbreviated nowadays to type. A tuple is an ordered set of attribute values. An attribute is an ordered pair of attribute name and type name.

An attribute value is a specific valid value for the type of the attribute. A relation consists of a heading and a body. A heading is a set of attributes. A body of an n -ary relation is a set of n -tuples. The heading of the relation is also the heading of each of its tuples. A relation is defined as a set of n -tuples. In both mathematics and the relational database model, a set is an unordered collection of unique, non-duplicated items, although some DBMSs impose an order to their data.

In mathematics, a tuple has an order, and allows for duplication. Codd originally defined tuples using this mathematical definition. This insight is still being used today. Though the concept has changed, the name "tuple" has not.

An immediate and important consequence of this distinguishing feature is that in the relational model the Cartesian product becomes commutative. A table is an accepted visual representation of a relation; a tuple is similar to the concept of a row.

A relvar is a named variable of some specific relation type, to which at all times some relation of that type is assigned, though the relation may contain zero tuples. The basic principle of the relational model is the Information Principle : all information is represented by data values in relations.

In accordance with this Principle, a relational database is a set of relvars and the result of every query is presented as a relation. The consistency of a relational database is enforced, not by rules built into the applications that use it, but rather by constraints , declared as part of the logical schema and enforced by the DBMS for all applications. To fully appreciate the relational model of data it is essential to understand the intended interpretation of a relation. The body of a relation is sometimes called its extension.

This is because it is to be interpreted as a representation of the extension of some predicate , this being the set of true propositions that can be formed by replacing each free variable in that predicate by a name a term that designates something. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the free variables of the predicate and the attribute names of the relation heading. Each tuple of the relation body provides attribute values to instantiate the predicate by substituting each of its free variables.

The result is a proposition that is deemed, on account of the appearance of the tuple in the relation body, to be true. Contrariwise, every tuple whose heading conforms to that of the relation, but which does not appear in the body is deemed to be false.

This assumption is known as the closed world assumption : it is often violated in practical databases, where the absence of a tuple might mean that the truth of the corresponding proposition is unknown.

For example, the absence of the tuple 'John', 'Spanish' from a table of language skills cannot necessarily be taken as evidence that John does not speak Spanish. For a formal exposition of these ideas, see the section Set-theoretic Formulation , below.

A data type as used in a typical relational database might be the set of integers, the set of character strings, the set of dates, or the two boolean values true and false , and so on. The corresponding type names for these types might be the strings "int", "char", "date", "boolean", etc.

It is important to understand, though, that relational theory does not dictate what types are to be supported; indeed, nowadays provisions are expected to be available for user-defined types in addition to the built-in ones provided by the system. Attribute is the term used in the theory for what is commonly referred to as a column.

Similarly, table is commonly used in place of the theoretical term relation though in SQL the term is by no means synonymous with relation. A table data structure is specified as a list of column definitions, each of which specifies a unique column name and the type of the values that are permitted for that column.

An attribute value is the entry in a specific column and row, such as "John Doe" or "35". Tuples are not ordered; instead, each attribute value is identified solely by the attribute name and never by its ordinal position within the tuple.

An attribute name might be "name" or "age". A relation is a table structure definition a set of column definitions along with the data appearing in that structure. The structure definition is the heading and the data appearing in it is the body , a set of rows. A database relvar relation variable is commonly known as a base table. The heading and body of the table resulting from evaluation of some query are determined by the definitions of the operators used in the expression of that query.

SQL, initially pushed as the standard language for relational databases , deviates from the relational model in several places. However, it is possible to create a database conforming to the relational model using SQL if one does not use certain SQL features. The following deviations from the relational model have been noted [ who?

Note that few database servers implement the entire SQL standard and in particular do not allow some of these deviations. Whereas NULL is ubiquitous, for example, allowing duplicate column names within a table or anonymous columns is uncommon. Users or programs request data from a relational database by sending it a query that is written in a special language, usually a dialect of SQL.

In response to a query, the database returns a result set, which is just a list of rows containing the answers. Often, data from multiple tables are combined into one, by doing a join. Conceptually, this is done by taking all possible combinations of rows the Cartesian product , and then filtering out everything except the answer.

In practice, relational database management systems rewrite " optimize " queries to perform faster, using a variety of techniques. There are a number of relational operations in addition to join. These include project the process of eliminating some of the columns , restrict the process of eliminating some of the rows , union a way of combining two tables with similar structures , difference that lists the rows in one table that are not found in the other , intersect that lists the rows found in both tables , and product mentioned above, which combines each row of one table with each row of the other.

These include semi-join, outer operators such as outer join and outer union, and various forms of division. Then there are operators to rename columns, and summarizing or aggregating operators, and if you permit relation values as attributes relation-valued attribute , then operators such as group and ungroup.

The flexibility of relational databases allows programmers to write queries that were not anticipated by the database designers. As a result, relational databases can be used by multiple applications in ways the original designers did not foresee, which is especially important for databases that might be used for a long time perhaps several decades.

This has made the idea and implementation of relational databases very popular with businesses. Relations are classified based upon the types of anomalies to which they're vulnerable. Normal forms are hierarchical in nature.

That is, the lowest level is the first normal form, and the database cannot meet the requirements for higher level normal forms without first having met all the requirements of the lesser normal forms.

An idealized, very simple example of a description of some relvars relation variables and their attributes:. The bold, underlined attributes are candidate keys. The non-bold, underlined attributes are foreign keys. Usually one candidate key is chosen to be called the primary key and used in preference over the other candidate keys, which are then called alternate keys.

A candidate key is a unique identifier enforcing that no tuple will be duplicated; this would make the relation into something else, namely a bag , by violating the basic definition of a set.

Both foreign keys and superkeys that includes candidate keys can be composite, that is, can be composed of several attributes. Below is a tabular depiction of a relation of our example Customer relvar; a relation can be thought of as a value that can be attributed to a relvar. If we attempted to insert a new customer with the ID , this would violate the design of the relvar since Customer ID is a primary key and we already have a customer The DBMS must reject a transaction such as this that would render the database inconsistent by a violation of an integrity constraint.

Foreign keys are integrity constraints enforcing that the value of the attribute set is drawn from a candidate key in another relation.

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