Jump to content. The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant cancer cells form in the tissues of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder the organ that collects and empties urine and in front of the rectum the lower part of the intestine.
Your doctor can write you a prescription for it. It is also used when cancer has metastasized spread into other organs or Prostate ncer treatment pictures. Frequent sex: Does it protect against Prostahe cancer? Hormone therapy is done surgically or with medication: Surgery: Removes the testicles and glands that produce testosterone with a procedure called an orchiectomy. They can also be affected by radiation Prostate ncer treatment pictures. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be like symptoms of prostate cancer. Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. You may experience incontinence and other urinary or treamtent problems at first. The drains are usually removed before you are discharged from the hospital.
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A number of prostate cancer images have been compiled to aid in your education. Transrectal ultrasound : A procedure in which a probe that is about the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. Lymph system. Its porn clinical trial of cryosurgery. Affiliated with The University of Florida. Knowing all of your options and finding Model operating target resources you need will help you make informed decisions about tteatment care. Prior Approvals. The cancer may come back in Prostate ncer treatment pictures prostate or in other parts of the body. Removal of nearby lymph nodes may be done at the same time. Media Properties. Common combinations that doctors prescribe are finasteride and doxazosin or dutasteride and tamsulosin Jalyn. If time permits, it is often a good idea to seek a second opinion. For some people, pixtures treatments have been tried Prostate ncer treatment pictures are no longer controlling the cancer, it could be time to weigh the benefits and risks of continuing to try new treatments. In radial blur background abstract Hand with blue prostate cancer awareness ribbon.
Ask your doctor to use this picture to show you where your cancer is.
- Getting a detailed look at some pictures of prostate cancer can give you a better idea of what you're up against.
- If trips to the restroom require sudden dashes or are marked by difficulty urinating, your prostate may be enlarged.
- The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system.
- Prostate cancer starts in the cells of the prostate, which is a small gland in the male reproductive system that produces semen.
Ask your doctor to use this picture to show you where your cancer is. The prostate is just below the bladder the hollow organ where urine is stored and in front of the rectum the last part of the intestines.
The tube that carries pee urine goes through the prostate. The prostate makes some of the fluid that helps keep the sperm alive and healthy. There are a few types of prostate cancer. Some are very rare. This cancer starts from gland cells. Prostate cancer tends to grow slowly over many years. Some signs of prostate cancer are trouble peeing, blood in the pee urine , trouble getting an erection, and pain in the back, hips, ribs, or other bones.
If signs are pointing to prostate cancer, tests will be done. Prostate cancer can make PSA levels go up. Blood tests will be done to see what your PSA level is and how it changes over time. It gives off sound waves and picks up the echoes as they bounce off the prostate gland. The echoes are made into a picture on a computer screen. MRI scans can be used to look at the prostate and can show if the cancer has spread outside the prostate to nearby organs. The prostate pieces are then checked for cancer cells.
A lymph node biopsy may be done if the doctor thinks the cancer might have spread from the prostate to nearby lymph nodes. A CT scan can show whether the cancer has spread outside the prostate. To do it, a small amount of a low-level radioactive substance is put into your blood.
It settles in damaged areas of bone all over the body. A special camera finds the radioactivity and makes a picture of your bones. If you have prostate cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. It also includes your blood PSA level and the grade of the cancer. The prostate cancer cells are given a grade , based on how they look under a microscope.
Those that look very different from normal cells are given a higher grade and are likely to grow faster. The grade of your cancer might be given as a Gleason score ranging from 6 to 10 or a Grade Group ranging from 1 to 5. Ask your doctor to explain the grade of your cancer.
The grade also can help decide which treatment s might be best for you. The lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. If your cancer hasn't spread to other parts of the body, it might also be given a risk group. The risk group can help tell if other tests should be done, and what the best treatment options might be.
There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Because prostate cancer often grows very slowly, some men, especially those who are older and with other health problems, may never need treatment at all. The doctor may plan to keep track of the cancer without treating it. This is called observation. It might be done if the cancer is small, is not causing any problems, and seems to be growing very slowly.
Some younger men who are healthy and have small slow-growing cancer may consider active surveillance. There are many types of surgery for prostate cancer. Some are done to try to cure the cancer; others are done to control the cancer or make symptoms better. Talk to the doctor about the kind of surgery planned and what you can expect.
Any type of surgery can have risks and side effects. Be sure to ask the doctor what you can expect. If you have problems, let your doctors know so they can help you. Radiation uses high-energy rays like x-rays to kill cancer cells. There are different ways to use radiation to treat prostate cancer. It can be aimed at the prostate gland from a machine outside the body. Or in some cases, small radioactive pellets, or seeds, each about the size of a grain of rice, can be put right into your prostate.
If your doctor suggests radiation treatment, talk about what side effects might happen. Some might last longer. Talk to your doctor about what you can expect.
This treatment reduces your levels of male hormones, called androgens, or stops them from working. But hormone therapy does not cure prostate cancer. Changing your hormone levels can cause side effects like less desire for sex, trouble getting an erection, hot flashes, bone thinning, and weight gain.
Talk to your doctor about what you can expect from your hormone treatment. Chemo is the use of drugs to fight cancer. The drugs may be given into a vein or taken as pills. These drugs go into the blood and spread through the body. Chemo is given in cycles or rounds. Each round of treatment is followed by a break. Chemo may be used if the cancer has spread outside the prostate gland. Chemo can make you feel very tired, sick to your stomach, and cause your hair to fall out.
But these problems go away after chemo treatment ends. If you have side effects, talk to your doctor so they can help. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab.
Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control. A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw ONJ. Clinical trials are research studies that test new drugs or other treatments in people.
They commonly compare standard treatments with others that may be better. Clinical trials are one way to get the newest cancer treatment. They are the best way for doctors to find better ways to treat cancer. And if you do sign up for a clinical trial, you can always stop at any time. When you have cancer you might hear about other ways to treat the cancer or treat your symptoms.
These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments may be vitamins, herbs, special diets, and other things. You may wonder about these treatments. Some of these are known to help, but many have not been tested. Some have been shown not to help. A few have even been found to be harmful. When cancer comes back it is called a recurrence. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about it.
For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. At first, your visits may be every few months. Be sure to go to all follow-up visits. Your doctors will ask about your symptoms, examine you, and might order blood tests and maybe other tests to see if the cancer has come back.
Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us at or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.
Healthcare, profession, people and medicine concept - close up of male doctor hands holding sky blue prostate Prostate cancer awareness. Side Effects of Cancer Treatment. The grade of the cancer is called the Gleason score. You will also find links to other organizations that provide information related to prostate cancer. A clinical trial of photodynamic therapy. If you are a man in one of these higher risk groups, talk to your doctor or nurse practitioner about regularly checking your prostate health.
Prostate ncer treatment pictures. Enlarged Prostate
If You Have Prostate Cancer
According to the American Cancer Society, about , Americans will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year, and 28, will die from the disease. Researchers have made substantial progress in understanding the causes and basic biology of the disease, and clinicians have developed improved methods of diagnosis and therapy. Even so, basic questions remain unanswered; as a result, many important decisions about prostate cancer are not made by doctors but by patients.
The first decision a man faces is whether or not to have a blood prostate-specific antigen PSA test and a digital rectal exam DRE to screen for early prostate cancer. Although many men find the decision difficult, there is no wrong answer. Odd as it sounds, both sides are right. That's why Harvard Men's Health Watch has not taken a position on PSA screening; instead, we've tried to explain the pros and cons so each man can decide what's best for him. Once a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer, his decisions take on a new urgency.
Not so with prostate cancer; instead, the doctor who announces the diagnosis is likely to ask the patient what treatment he wants. That means the shock of a diagnosis is followed by the shock of learning that, in many cases, doctors disagree about which treatment is best.
It's not that doctors haven't tried to answer the question themselves. In both cases, dozens of experts reviewed thousands of studies but were unable to establish standard-of-care recommendations.
And a major review sponsored by the U. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality agreed, concluding that "Assessment of the comparative effectiveness and harms of localized prostate cancer treatments is difficult because of lack of evidence. Let's examine why prostate cancer is different from other malignancies, and what makes studies hard to perform and tricky to interpret. Scientists don't know how prostate cancer gets started or what causes it, but several factors are important.
Genetics certainly play a role. Men with fathers or brothers who've had prostate cancer are 1. Hormones also play a role; testosterone and other androgens male hormones stimulate the growth of prostate cells, both benign and malignant, but there is no simple link between testosterone levels and risk. Lifestyle is also important. Dietary fat "" particularly saturated fat from animal products "" appears to fuel the disease, and very high levels of calcium and alpha-linolenic acid the omega-3 fat in flaxseeds and canola oil may also have an adverse effect.
In contrast, tomatoes and other vegetables, soy products, fish, and whole grains may be protective. Obesity increases risk. And although the evidence is mixed, exercise may be helpful, smoking harmful. Though factors contribute to prostate cancer, they act slowly. That's why age is the greatest predictor of risk. It's a bit scary: if you live long enough, you probably will get prostate cancer.
Modified from Report of the U. Why is prostate cancer so different? First, the disease is different. Second, the cancer grows slowly. With many malignancies, a five-year survival is tantamount to cure, so clinical trials can learn if a treatment is effective in a relatively short time.
After that, however, the prostate cancer death rate triples. As a result, it may take 10 or 15 years for a study to learn how well a treatment works.
Third, the diagnosis of prostate cancer has changed dramatically. Widespread PSA testing has produced an explosive rise in the number of cases detected, particularly in young men with early disease. Doctors don't yet know if the cancers detected by PSA screening will behave the same way as the cancers detected by older methods.
Fourth, the treatment is also changing. For many years, the options for active therapy were limited to surgery, external beam radiation, and hormonal therapy. Doctors have developed greatly improved techniques for each of these standard treatments "" and they have also developed entirely new approaches, such as brachytherapy with implanted radioactive seeds; cryotherapy, which kills prostate cells by freezing them; and neoadjuvant therapy, which combines radiation with hormone treatment.
When the American Urological Association tried to compare the outcome of patients treated with active surveillance, surgery, or radiation, they found they were comparing apples to oranges. Doctors know that prostate cancer is a complex and puzzling disease. They also know that the only way to get answers is with scientific study. A great deal has been learned, but many reports contain biases that are overlooked by the media, and even by some experts who cite them to argue for one interpretation or another.
Perhaps that's why Mark Twain said, "There are lies, damned lies, and statistics. Medical statistics is a complex field, and few of us aspire to expertise. Lead-time bias. To understand this, suppose that Joe and Jim are identical twins who maintained identical health habits throughout life. At 60, Joe was found to have prostate cancer. He underwent a radical prostatectomy, but his disease recurred at age 70, and he died at Meanwhile Jim felt fine until age 70, when bone pain led to a diagnosis of widespread prostate cancer.
He improved with hormone treatment but died at age Comparing the two brothers, early diagnosis and treatment appears the winner, producing 15 years of survival after diagnosis versus just five years for delayed diagnosis and treatment.
In fact, though, both men had the same life expectancy and fate. The only thing that appears to favor Joe is earlier diagnosis; that difference is lead-time bias. Length-time bias. Slow-growing cancers are likely to be clinically silent and to be diagnosed by screening. As a result, a higher proportion of cancers detected today by PSA screening are indolent, while a higher proportion of cancers that were diagnosed in the past only after they produced symptoms were likely to be aggressive.
That makes it hazardous to compare disease-free survival rates in the PSA era with those in unscreened populations; the apparent improvements in the PSA era could be explained by length-time bias. It's always nice to announce good news, but how would you interpret this statement?
Is it a tribute to early diagnosis and better treatment, or the result of comparing apples to oranges? Progress or bias "" or can we tell? And is five-year survival a good benchmark for prostate cancer?
Selection bias. In many studies, prostate cancer patients who are treated surgically tend to be younger and to have earlier disease and better overall health than patients who receive radiotherapy. Similarly, patients who are observed without treatment tend to be older and to have poorer general health. These differences produce selection bias that can muddy comparisons between various types of treatment.
The only way to fully overcome selection bias is to study patients who agree to be randomly assigned to one treatment or another. To date, only one modern, randomized clinical trial that compared prostate cancer therapy to observation has been published.
This important study showed that surgery was superior to watchful waiting, at least for some men. A diagnosis of cancer is always frightening. Men who receive a diagnosis of early prostate cancer are faced with a choice between active surveillance without immediate therapy, or surgery, radiation, and, in some centers, cryotherapy.
Many men feel pressed to decide quickly so they can get on with treatment. Fortunately, careful studies show that because prostate cancer grows slowly, treatment can be delayed for many months without harm. Since there is no need to rush into treatment, men should take the time they need to gather information, digest the facts, and discuss options with relatives and friends. Because sexual function may be influenced by treatment decisions, a man's spouse or partner should always participate in these decisions.
In many cases, the decision-making process will benefit from independent second and third opinions from doctors with different perspectives; urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists have their own views, and each can help.
A diagnosis of prostate cancer calls for difficult decisions, but they should never be rushed or made alone. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.
Harvard Men's Health Watch. Published: May, E-mail Address. First Name Optional. From: Jemal A, et al. CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians,