CAPSTAR is an oral tablet for dogs, puppies, cats and kittens 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 4 weeks of age and older. Nitenpyram kills adult fleas. If your pet gets re-infested with fleas, you can safely give another dose as often as once per day. If you hide the pill in food, watch closely to make sure your pet swallows the pill. If you are not sure that your pet swallowed the pill, it is safe to give a second pill.
I am not paid to promote Capstar flea control the trading name of Nitenpyram in Australia pegnant a flea treatment, although I have used the product in practice and have found ajimals it acts well as a speedy flea killer for cats and dogs the Capstar for pregnant animals for which it was designed. There are no known drug or food interactions What special precautions are there: This medication treats the pet only. Subscribe to Drugs. Daily news summary. Novartis, like all responsible drug companies, wants to know about any observed side effects.
True details models. What is Capstar (nitenpyram) Flea Treatment Tablets?
In the presence of a limited number of chips, these can be difficult to see. Note - This is off-label use. Kari sweets teen this period of nerve activation, the neonicotinoid drug does not unbind from the nicotinic receptor in the Capstar for pregnant animals that acetylcholine does in animals, acetylcholine bound to the nAChR degrades, allowing the effect to cease. Weigh the dog prior to administration to ensure proper dosage. Capstar for pregnant animals flea medication is absorbed very well into the cat or dog's system little is lost in the feces. The maximum blood concentration is reached in 30 to minutes in fasted dogs and cats. Just looking at the dose range for Capstar flea control pills should give you an idea of the drug's safety. Nitenpyram is a neonicotinoid, meaning that it is related to and resembles nicotine in effect. Pets weighing between In clinical studies, Capstar achieved greater than 90 percent effectiveness against adult fleas within 4 hours on dogs and within 6 hours on cats. The product has no persistent activity. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Victoria silvesdt naked is chemically stable under normal conditions of storage. Capstar flea medication is rapidly excreted via the urine and does not last for very long in the animal's body Nitenpyram is non-cumulative and has no long term, residual activity.
Treat all your dogs and cats with fast-acting Capstar and start killing adult fleas in just 30 minutes.
- CAPSTAR is an oral tablet for dogs, puppies, cats and kittens 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 4 weeks of age and older.
- Nitenpyram kills adult fleas.
This page contains information on how Nitenpyram the active ingredient of Capstar flea treatment works; info on how to use Capstar flea control pills and information on the safety and efficacy of the Capstar flea product. Important note: I have researched and written this page to provide information on Nitenpyram from a veterinary perspective. I am not paid to promote Capstar flea control the trading name of Nitenpyram in Australia as a flea treatment, although I have used the product in practice and have found that it acts well as a speedy flea killer for cats and dogs the function for which it was designed.
How does the Nitenpyram work? Note - This is off-label use. The active ingredient in Capstar flea medication is a chemical compound called Nitenpyram. The drug belongs to a newer class of chemical insecticides called neonicotinoids. Nitenpyram is closely related to other neonicotinoid insecticidal compounds including: imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam, which are used in the control of fleas imidacloprid, nitenpyram and other garden and crop pests generally pests that feed by piercing or sucking juices and saps from the plants.
These chemicals bind to the post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors nAChR of insect motoneurones see next section for details , causing paralysis of the insects and then death. The product is adulticidal, meaning that it works to kill adult fleas rather than their eggs, larvae or cocoons. Nitenpyram as it occurs in Capstar flea control pills is white to yellow in colour. Capstar is not quite odorless, however, the smell is mild and in no-way noxious. Nitenpyram is non-flammable, non-corrosive and non-explosive, however it is potentially combustible.
Capstar flea control pills are immiscible in water, meaning that they will not dissolve to form a homogenous solution or suspension with water. Nitenpyram is chemically stable under normal conditions of storage. Nitenpyram generally appears on its own in products e. Capstar flea medication , however, sometimes it is used concurrently with Lufenuron flea control to achieve both an insect growth inhibition effect the Lufenuron and an adult-flea killing effect the Nitenpyram.
The following information on the effect of Capstar flea medication pertains mainly to cat and dog flea species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis. Consequently, I can not say for sure whether or not the product will have the same effect on rabbit stickfast fleas, poultry fleas or other kinds of fleas. I imagine that it might after all, other fleas drink blood too , but can give no guarantees. Capstar flea control pills are administered to dogs and cats orally.
The Nitenpyram present in the Capstar flea medication product enters the treated animal's bloodstream and circulates with the blood. Adult fleas ingest the Nitenpyram medication when they drink the blood of the medicated dog or cat. The Nitenpyram kills the adult flea. How Nitenpyram works: Nitenpyram is a neonicotinoid chemical, which, loosely translated, means: "new or novel nicotine-related" chemical.
Neonicotinoid insecticides are synthetic variations of nicotine : a natural alkaloid compound that exists within the leaves of a variety of plant species of the Genus Nicotiana , including those trees responsible for producing tobacco as in cigarettes. Nitenpyram and other drugs of the neonicotinoid family e. These receptors are called nicotinic acetylcholine receptors nAChR. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in animals: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors nAChR are found in many locations within the animal nervous system.
Explanatory author's note: Nerves are not continuous. For example, one nerve doesn't go straight from the brain to a toe. When the brain wants to tell a toe to move, it sends electrical nerve signals to the toe along of chain of interlinking nerves.
These nerves communicate by relaying signals to one other in order along the chain. When one nerve wants to relay a signal say, to the next nerve along the chain or to the muscle it wants to activate, like a toe muscle , it must do so by secreting a chemical called a neurotransmitter.
Acetylcholine abbreviated to ACh is but one type of neurotransmitter. This neurotransmitter crosses a small gap between the nerve that secreted it the nerve 'sending the message' and the next nerve or muscle intended for activation.
This gap is called a "synapse". The neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on the nerve or muscle intended for activation, causing activation to occur. There are a couple of types of AChR and one type is called a 'nicotinic' AChR because scientists found that the drug "nicotine" also activated this particular acetylcholine receptor in much the same way as true acetylcholine did i.
These include: peripheral blood vessel constriction, effects on the heart rate sometimes the heart will race, in keeping with sympathetic stimulation, and sometimes it will slow, in keeping with parasympathetic nerve effects , effects on blood pressure often an increase , pupil dilation, increased mental stimulation and alertness, increased saliva production and increased gastrointestinal activity among other effects.
Activation of the body muscles is needed to create muscle contraction and movement. When taken to extremes e. Such rigidity in the muscles responsible for moving the rib cage in and out causes the animal to breathe shallowly some animals become completely incapable of drawing breath in and out and thus the animal dies from a lack of oxygen.
Excessive muscle stimulation and rigidity also causes the animal to produce excessive body heat muscle activity produces heat - which is why we shiver when we are cold - to warm up , causing extreme hyperthermia and often death from excessive body heat. So where does the flea and the Nitenpyram fit in? Nitenpyram is a neonicotinoid, meaning that it is related to and resembles nicotine in effect. Similar to the situation described above for nicotine poisoning, Nitenpyram causes excessive stimulation and swamping of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, producing rigidity, paralysis and death.
The fantastic thing about nitenpyram, however, is that, due to its chemical structure, it is specific for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors present on the nerves of insects like fleas. It binds strongly to insect nAChR causing intense activation of these receptors and resultant rigidity and paralysis of the insects thus killing the fleas. Nitenpyram binds very poorly to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of vertebrate animals e. This is the reason why side effects and toxicity effects are very uncommon in animals given Nitenpyram-containing Capstar flea control pills.
Author's note: insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are only found in the central nervous system of the insects, not directly on the muscles as seen in vertebrates. The ultimate effect is still very similar, however. Neonicotinoid insecticides bind to the nicotinic receptors, causing them to become activated and overstimulated. The insect develops rigidity and twitching as a result. Following this period of nerve activation, the neonicotinoid drug does not unbind from the nicotinic receptor in the way that acetylcholine does in animals, acetylcholine bound to the nAChR degrades, allowing the effect to cease.
The exhausted nerves can not send any signals at all then, particularly since the receptors are all clogged up with neonicotinoid compounds and, as a result, the insect becomes fully paralysed. A article in the Annual Review of Entomology confirmed the different effect of neonicotinoids on vertebrates versus insects.
It showed that neonicotinoid chemicals like Nitenpyram and Imidacloprid were toxic to insects and not to vertebrates the study focussed on mammals because of differences in the structure of insect and mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors nAChR.
The neonicotinoid drugs were capable of binding to insect nAChR and causing toxicity signs, but they were not as capable of binding to mammalian nAChR. The active 'binding site' of mammalian nAChR is negatively charged anionic , whereas the active 'binding site' of insect nAChR the site on the nicotinic receptor where the neonicotinoid drugs bind to exert their activation effect is positively charged cationic.
Being positively charged, the insect nAChR is ideally suited to binding with the neonicotinoid chemicals which are negatively charged, whereas, the negatively charged mammalian nAChR would only repel these chemicals, stopping them from exerting an effect.
Nitenpyram is considered to be a "full agonist" at the insect nAChR, meaning that it binds strongly to and exerts a full stimulatory effect on the insect's nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
Thus, it works quickly and aggressively to swamp the nAChR receptors on the flea's nerves causing complete over-stimulation and rapid obstruction of nerve signals and resultant paralysis. The affected flea can't move and falls off the pet, its body and legs stiffly rigid. This extreme degree of paralysis persists the nitenpyram does not unbind from the nAChR and the immobilised flea dies in the environment.
Imidacloprid, another related flea control product, is considered to be a "partial agonist" at the insect nAChR, meaning that it binds less strongly to the receptor and does not exert as extreme or rapid a stimulatory effect though the effect it has is still irreversible, such that it eventually causes the death of the flea, particularly at high doses.
The result was different poisoning symptoms in the cockroaches, with depression and full paralysis observed for the full agonist compounds e. Nitenpyram and excitation responses predominating before death for the partial agonist compounds like imidacloprid e.
Another study, published in the journal of Veterinary Parasitology, examined the effect of various flea control products, including Capstar flea medication, on flea feeding times and blood consumption quantities. Capstar flea control pills along with topical selamectin also caused significant reduction in blood consumption by fleas. Nitenpyram-affected fleas only fed for about 15 minutes before starting to die. Capstar flea medication is designed to kill adult fleas feeding directly on the blood of the dog or cat.
Little is lost to the feces. Following oral dosing, peak drug levels are reached in the animal's blood after about 40 minutes in cats and 80 minutes in dogs. Adult fleas stop feeding after about fifteen minutes of consuming Nitenpyram-treated blood and dead fleas start to fall off the treated pet within about 30 minutes of dosing.
It is a fast-action effect. Another references states that, in dogs there will be A study, published in the journal of Veterinary Parasitology, examined the effect of various flea control products, including Capstar flea medication, on flea survival.
Cythioate used on cats only in the study showed a Selamectin used on dogs only in the study showed a In dogs, Fipronil showed a Imidacloprid in cats showed only a Capstar flea medication doesn't maintain its effect for a very long period: Capstar flea medication is rapidly excreted via the urine and does not last in the animal's body very long the effect is lost within 2 days, as indicated in the Journal of Medical Entomology article, below.
For this reason, Capstar flea medication needs to be given daily to maintain an ongoing effect, otherwise the fleas developing and hatching out of the environment will soon invade the pet once again.
The drug is not cumulative and does not build-up excessively in the body with repeated dosing. Between 1 and 2 days after a single treatment, adult flea numbers were decreased by The drug only kills the fleas that drink directly from the medicated host animal. Capstar flea medication does not inhibit or destroy flea eggs, flea larvae or flea cocoons flea pupae. It should be noted, however, that Capstar flea medication works so quickly, adult fleas rarely get a chance to lay their eggs before they die.
Thus, the quantity of fertile flea eggs falling from the coat and into the environment of a Capstar-treated animal is greatly reduced. Thus, environmental contamination with flea eggs is also minimized. Between days after treatment, the flea egg quantities collected from the coats of host animals were reduced by around Capstar flea medication does not kill ticks.
Capstar flea medication will kill blow fly maggots flystrike or myiasis. Capstar flea control pills are given to dogs and cats over 4 weeks of age, so long as the animal is over 2 lb 2 pounds or g in weight.
A 25 pound dog is approximately The Capstar flea control pills are available in packs of 6. Capstar is non-prescription and can be purchased over the counter.
The information provided is based on published information and on recommendations made available from the drug companies themselves; relevant veterinary literature and publications and my own experience as a practicing veterinarian. The elimination Half-Life is 4 hours in dogs and 8 hours in cats. Birth defects and the loss of unborn puppies and kittens have been reported following the administration of Capstar flea medication to pregnant animals. Dechra MalAcetic Shampoo, 12 oz. But delayed Tmax slightly in cats without affecting other pharmacokinetic parameters and without affecting efficacy.
Capstar for pregnant animals. Helpful Links
Capstar - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Treat all your dogs and cats with fast-acting Capstar and start killing adult fleas in just 30 minutes. When you have a flea infestation, you need to kill fleas fast. Unlike topicals, shampoos and sprays, Capstar is an oral tablet that starts working from the inside out.
It is safe to administer daily to kill new fleas as they appear on your pet. If your pet gets re-infested with fleas, it is safe to administer another dose as often as once a day. Capstar kills adult fleas and are indicated for the treatment of flea infestations on dogs, puppies, cats and kittens 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 4 weeks of age and older. If you hide the pill in food, watch closely to make sure your pet swallows the pill.
If you are not sure that your pet swallowed the pill, it is safe to give a second pill. Treat all infested pets in the household. Fleas can reproduce on untreated pets and allow infestations to persist. Always read, understand and follow the label and use directions.
Cheristin Capstar. Key Benefits Treatment of flea infestations. Begins working within 30 minutes. For oral use. Capstar FAQs. Easy-To-Administer Tablets. Quick relief for all your pets Capstar kills adult fleas and are indicated for the treatment of flea infestations on dogs, puppies, cats and kittens 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 4 weeks of age and older.
Where to buy.